lunes, 26 de marzo de 2018

TEXTO TAREA PARA TODOS LOS ALUMNOS INGLÉS

Elija una de las dos opciones propuestas, A o B. En cada pregunta se señala la puntuación máxima.
OPCIÓN A
How Zaragoza Learned to Use Less Water
In the northern city of Zaragoza citizens transformed habits in a decade and managed to reduce water use. The director of the Spanish NGO Fundación Ecología y Desarrollo wondered what would happen if authorities focused less on making sure residents had access to all the water they wanted and more on reducing demand. This was the beginning of a 15-year experiment in Zaragoza that has revolutionised water management.
The project started simply, with a challenge to save 1 billion litres of water in a year. Discounts were offered on water-saving products and also to residents who succeeded in reducing their water consumption. A local hairdressing salon achieved water savings of 90%. “We immediately spread the news about these good practices to the other 1000 hairdressing salons in the city,” the director of the Fundación says.
Statistics prove that this city of 700,000 inhabitants has transformed itself. Between 1997 and 2012, use of water in Zaragoza dropped from 150 litres/day per capita to 99 litres/day. We’re talking about a process of 15 years. According to the director of the Fundación, to achieve profound change —whether it be environmental, social or cultural— you have to be very patient and be prepared for a prolonged and difficult task. “Here in Zaragoza we’ve brought about that profound change. The population grew, but we use fewer resources than before. It’s really what needs to be achieved on a global level.”
(Adapted from “Smarter urban water: how Spain's Zaragoza learned to use less”, The Guardian)
1. Add True or False, quoting the relevant information from the text to justify your answer. (2 points) a) According to the director of the Fundación Ecología y Desarrollo, authorities should be more concerned with providing citizens with all the water they want.
b) The director of the Fundación believes that Zaragoza is an example to be followed.

2. Answer the following questions according to the information given in the text. Use your own words. (2 points) a) What does the text say about the role of hairdressing salons in the experiment?
b) How and when did the experiment start?

3. Find words or phrases in the text which mean the same as the following. (1 point) a) Use, need. c) Paid attention.
b) Decreased, diminished. d) People who live somewhere, inhabitants.

4. Complete the following sentences. The meaning should be the same as that of the first sentence. (2 points) a) Experts believe that water has always been managed in a reactive way in Spain.


Water (…)
b) You didn’t reduce your water consumption. I cannot give you a discount.

(…) because (…)
c) You should not spend so much time showering.

You’d (…)
d) The population grew, but we use fewer resources than before.

In spite of (…)
5. Write a composition with the following title (80-120 words): (3 points)

Everybody can contribute to the protection of the environment. Discuss.

OPCIÓN B AL DORSO
OPCIÓN B
How Sleep Affects Your Memory
Every lifestyle choice can affect your cognitive abilities and health. In recent years, various researchers have found that a habit that most of us take for granted —sleep— may affect our memory in noticeable ways. It is well known that sleep plays an important role in memory and learning. A scientific study suggests that sleep is necessary for memory consolidation and helps form long-term memories, as it promotes new connections between neurons.
Not only may sleep help your memory, but lack of sleep may also hurt your health. A 2010 study found that chronic insomnia may lead to loss of brain volume. Researchers used scans to examine the brains of 37 human subjects with and without chronic insomnia. Insomniacs had smaller volumes of grey matter in three brain areas —and the more serious the insomnia, the greater the loss of volume.
The third of our life that we spend sleeping has always been something of a mystery. Now a new wave of studies are finding indications that while we sleep our brains are actually hard at work. Sleep really helps to make connections and in sleep the brain is not quiet, it is replaying what happened during the day. It may take many years or even decades for scientists to reach definite conclusions about all the many roles that sleep plays, but most of them agree that getting a decent night’s rest is a good idea.
(Adapted from Lumosity News, “Sleep yourself to a Better Memory?”)
1. Add True or False, quoting the relevant information from the text to justify your answer. (2 points) a) A recent study has proved that permanent lack of sleep can affect the size of your brain.
b) Scientists still expect to discover new things about sleep.

2. Answer the following questions according to the information given in the text. Use your own words. (2 points) a) How does sleep affect our memory?
b) What does our brain do while we sleep?

3. Find words or phrases in the text which mean the same as the following. (1 point) a) Absence, deprivation. c) Damage, harm.
b) Develops, stimulates. d) Functions.

4. Complete the following sentences. The meaning should be the same as that of the first sentence. (2 points) a) I would prefer to stay at home. I didn’t get much sleep last night and I’m too tired for a party.


I’d (…)
b) Researchers used scans to examine the brains of 37 human subjects.

Scans (…)
c) It may take many years or even decades for scientists to reach definite conclusions about all the many roles that sleep plays, but most of them agree that getting a decent night’s rest is a good idea.

Although (…)
d) Teenagers usually sleep more hours than adults.

Adults don’t (…)
5. Write a composition with the following title (80-120 words): (3 points)

Apart from getting enough sleep, what else can you do to improve your health?

Cada uno de los ejercicios tendrá una duración de hora y media y se calificará de 0 a 10 con dos cifras decimales.
Cuestión 1. (2 puntos)
Se otorgará un punto a cada frase, siempre que tanto la denotación de Verdadero o Falso como su justificación sean correctas. En el caso de que la justificación sea excesiva, se podrá otorgar medio punto por frase. No puntuarán aquellas respuestas en las que la denotación de Verdadero o Falso no vaya acompañada de su correspondiente justificación o ésta sea incorrecta.
Cuestión 2. (2 puntos)
Se otorgará un punto a cada una de las respuestas, valorando en igual medida la comprensión (0,5 puntos) y la corrección lingüística (0,5 puntos). Esta cuestión trata de evaluar no sólo la comprensión sino la capacidad de comunicar información deducida de la lectura. Se intentará evitar, por tanto, la reproducción literal de expresiones del texto.
Cuestión 3. (1 punto)
Se otorgarán 0,25 puntos a cada una de las respuestas, cuatro en total. Esta cuestión trata de evaluar la comprensión del texto y el valor semántico de algunos de los términos que en él aparecen.
Cuestión 4. (2 puntos)
Se concederán 0,5 puntos a cada frase completada correctamente. Se valorará la adecuación semántica (0,25 puntos) y la corrección de la estructura morfosintáctica (0,25 puntos) más que los detalles de ortografía.
Cuestión 5. (3 puntos)
Un criterio excluyente a la hora de puntuar en este apartado será la falta de adecuación al tema propuesto o la reproducción literal y continuada de fragmentos del texto inicial. La redacción se corregirá atendiendo a un conjunto de aspectos y no sólo a la corrección gramatical y ortográfica. Así deberá tenerse en cuenta: el dominio del léxico, la organización de ideas, la coherencia, la creatividad, la capacidad para transmitir un mensaje, etc. La puntuación se distribuirá del siguiente modo:
− Hasta 1 punto por la corrección morfosintáctica.
− Hasta 1 punto por la utilización adecuada del léxico, riqueza del mismo y creatividad.
− Hasta 1 punto por la organización y presentación de ideas, la coherencia en la exposición y la capacidad de comunicar.

Se valorará el buen uso de la lengua y la adecuada notación científica, que los correctores podrán bonificar con un máximo de un punto. Por los errores ortográficos, la falta de limpieza en la presentación y la redacción defectuosa podrá bajarse la calificación hasta un punto

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